Cisco CCNA Exam Tutorial: Using Trivial File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

One of the first things you do when you start studying for the CCNA exam is memorizing a list of port numbers and the protocols that run on those ports. If you’re an experienced networker, you know most of the protocols that are mentioned – DNS, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, and so on. But there’s one protocol that you might not have experience with, but is actually vital for CCNA exam success and success in working with Cisco routers and switches, and that’s TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol.

TFTP is basically FTP’s non-secure relative. There are no passwords, no authentication scheme, no nothing! As someone once told me, “If I’m transferring my files, there’s nothing ‘trivial’ about it.”

Great. So you’re thinking, “What the heck do we use TFTP for, anyway?”

TFTP is used in the Cisco world to perform IOS upgrades and to save configs to a TFTP Server. Cisco routers can themselves serve as TFTP servers, or you can use a workstation to fill that role.

If you needed to copy an IOS image to a router, for example, you could do so easily by connecting your PC to the router’s console port (via a rollover cable, right?). Your PC would need to run TFTP server software. There are quite a few free TFTP server software programs that work quite well – just enter “free tftp server” into Google or your favorite search engine and you’ll see what I mean.

Using TFTP in this fashion is a great way to have backup copies of IOS images or router configs right on your laptop. And take it from me, when the day comes that you need those backups, you’ll be glad you did!

Remember that when using the copy command, you first indicate where you’re copying from, then where you’re copying to:

R1#copy flash tftp

Source filename []? Example

Address or name of remote host []?

When performing such a copy, you’ll need to name the file you’re copying, as well as the IP address of the device you’re copying to.

Using TFTP to perform IOS upgrades takes a little getting used to, especially the syntax of the copy command. But knowing that syntax and how to use TFTP will indeed get you one step closer to the CCNA!

8 Top Tips When Studying for Exams

Many of us have occasions when we need to study for exams, often starting at school and then moving onto university and professional qualifications. Most people find them to be very stressful times.

A few helpful tips can make an enormous difference:

– Review your mental approach. Exams can be an important stepping-stone for our future choices and it’s good to do our best, but know too that passing or failing doesn’t define who you are. If you need to re-sit certain parts remind yourself that life’s not over. Taking a little longer won’t matter in the long-term.

– Use whichever method works for you. Is it writing notes, recording and playing sections back, practising papers, being quizzed? Discover your preferred way to study.

– Break studying into bite-sized chunks. Rather than attacking everything in a random way and becoming overwhelmed it’s more effective to start by establishing a timetable. Study one subject in the morning, maybe another in the afternoon. Introduce variety and keep things fresh.

– Schedule time away. It’s good to take a break and make the most of 15 minute interludes. Go for a walk, have a singalong, dance, be energetic. Maybe even use opportunities to study outside in the fresh air for a change. You’ll find you return with refreshed energy and a clearer mind.

– Are your friends a good influence? Some people don’t need to study and find exams easy. If friends are a distraction maybe take a break from them for the duration. The last thing you need are people who don’t share your goals, reduce your focus or put you off.

– Talk to those closest and let them be supportive. It might be a parent, teacher, family friend, but discuss your concerns and fears with those who are on your side and let them help with reassurance, motivation or simply by listening.

– Sleep is important, so keep good discipline around bedtime. Cramming all night is exhausting and is often counter-productive. Eat, drink water and sleep. Self-care matters all the more when you’re studying.

– Apprenticeships, internships and ‘shop floor’ entry can offer viable alternatives to exams en route to your chosen career. Working your way up whilst in employment can be an effective way to learn many relevant skills and many employers will fund your taking professional exams.

Do your best and remember, whatever happens this is one step on your journey to reaching your goals. Sometimes detours are fine and lead to unexpected, interesting places. Value each opportunity.

Make the PMP Exam a Happy and Stress-Free Exam

It has been common to us to be really nervous during the PMP Exam. It even turns out to be the most stressful day of our entire lives. You might feel wanting to stop but you must not! You have given a whole lot of your time for that and it would be a waste of everything if you give up now. Think positive and move on, be confident that with all the sacrifices you did, you will pass. Trust in yourself and you will do great. You have the right to pass. But, if you really want to delay for awhile your exam, you could tell the Prometric testing 2 days before the exam or 35 days if paper-based exam.

During the examination day, you should bring important things with you. And your Identification is one of it. It should have your signature and photo in it. If you have a driver’s license, you could use it. But if you’re identification card does not have a signature, you could your other cards like ATM and bank cards. However, Prometric centers doesn’t allow Social Security Cards and Library Cards to be your identification card.

Also, never go to take the exam without preparing yourself.

– You should sleep early the night before the exam to gain more strength,
– eat healthy and nutritious foods like fruits and oats, if time allows you could at least have a short exercise, jog for a few rounds, to freshen up your body, mind and spirit,
– wear something comfortable. It’ll help you feel better and confident, and
– review your notes.

And be early half before the exact time for your exam. You could still relax a little bit, feel the fresh air and feel prepared, unlike being on time – you’ll be taking the exam while catching your breath!

As you start the test, they will be giving you a paper, pencil and a calculator. Before the test is given, write down first everything that you have remembered. You could look at your paper during the exam and it won’t that hard for you to answer. You may get too nervous to remember everything that you have studied. It is better to write it down while you are still relaxed as soon as the paper was given to you.

After that long and nervous test, stay calm! Relax! And you should feel great for you have done your best to take and pass the test. You don’t have to worry much because you will be receiving the results of the exam after 10 days. But, if you didn’t pass the test, don’t feel dismayed. Failure is part of our lives. Besides, it’s never been the end of the world. You can retake the exam again. And if ever you didn’t pass, all you need to pay is for the re-examination fees. So cheer up!

So, be ready for the exam. I’m sure you’ll do great; especially, you have done your best part for it. You deserve to pass. Be prepared and take the PMP exam with full confidence. Good luck!

Copyright (c) 2010 John Reiling